Palyno–morphological and isotopic characterization of monofloral and multifloral honeys from Lucknow, India


  • Sumaiyah Farooqui Amity University, Amity Road, Sector 125, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), 201301
  • Md Firoze Quamar Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, 53, University Road, Lucknow 226007, India
  • Anjum Farooqui Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, 53, University Road, Lucknow 226007, India
  • Rajesh Agnihotri Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, 53, University Road, Lucknow 226007, India
  • Salman Khan Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, 53, University Road, Lucknow 226007, India



Melissopalynology, Microscopy techniques, Carbon stable isotope, Botany & Geography, Lucknow, India


We describe and illustrate the detailed palyno–morphological attributes, based on light microscopy (LM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), as well as characterize the carbon stable isotopic (δ13C) values of filtered and unfiltered natural and commercial honey samples from Lucknow, India. The principal objective behind conducting the melissopalynological investigation is to gather relevant information about the pollen and nectar sources, foraged by honey bees in an area, which is a decade–old expansion of the city on an arable land. The pollen assemblages revealed one monofloral and two multifloral honey samples, ultimately provide insights into the variety of plants foraged by honey bees in an urban set–up, and is a potential archive for observing decadal changes in plant diversity. The carbon stable isotopic (δ13C) values of all the natural honeys varied from ~ –25 to –26‰, which relates to the regional vegetation types and environmental conditions. The difference between the filtered (without pollen) and unfiltered honey is ≤ 1.00‰. The δ13C values of the three commercial honey, which are filtered /without pollen are same i.e. –27‰. Hence, it is suggested that honey with pollen of diverse flora of the study area should be preferred by the consumers as a pure and also as a clinically safe food product.


प्रकाश सुक्ष्मदर्शीय (एलएम) तथा क्षेत्र उत्सर्जन क्रमवीक्षण इलेक्ट्रॉन सुक्ष्मदर्शीय (एफईएसईएम) आधार पर हम विस्तृत परागाणु-आकृतिक विशेषताओं का चित्रण और व्याख्या करते हैं, इसके साथ ही लखनऊ, भारत से एकत्र किए गए निथरे (फ़िल्टर्ड) एवं बिना निथरे (अनफ़िल्टर्ड) प्राकृतिक तथा व्यवसायिक शहद के नमूनों के कार्बन स्थिर समस्थानिकीय (δ13C) मानों का निरूपण करते हैं। कृषिगत भूमि पर शहर के एक दशक पुराने विस्तृत क्षेत्र में मेलिसो परागाणविक जांच का मुख्य उद्देश्य इस क्षेत्र में मधु मक्खियों द्वारा एकत्रित पराग एवं मकरंद स्रोतों से संबन्धित प्रासंगिक आंकड़े प्राप्त करना है। पराग समुच्चयों से एक 'एकपुष्पीय' तथा दो 'बहुपुष्पीय' शहद के नमूनों की पुष्टि हुई है, जिनमें मूलतः शहरी क्षेत्र में मधु मक्खियों द्वारा एकत्रित परागकण के माध्यम से वनस्पतियों की विविधता संबंधी जानकारी अंतर्दृष्टि है तथा ये दशकीय वनस्पति की विविधता के अवलोकन हेतु एक संभावित आलेख हैं। सभी प्राकृतिक शहद का कार्बन स्थिर समस्थानिक (δ13C) का मान ~ -25 से -26‰ के बीच था, जिसका संबंध क्षेत्रीय वनस्पति वर्गों तथा पर्यावरणीय परिस्थितियों से है। निथरे हुए  (पराग रहित) तथा  बिना निथरे (अनफ़िल्टर्ड) शहद के मध्य  ≤ 1.00‰ का अंतर है। निथरे/पराग रहित तीन व्यवसायिक शहद नमूनों का  δ13C मान समरूप यानी -27‰ है। अतः यह सुझाव दिया जाता है कि अध्ययन क्षेत्र में विविध वनस्पतियों से एकत्रित परागकण से निर्मित शहद को उपभोक्ताओं द्वारा शुद्ध तथा चिकित्सकीय रूप से सुरक्षित खाद्य उत्पाद के रूप में वरीयता प्रदान करनी चाहिए।


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How to Cite

Farooqui, S., Quamar, M. F., Farooqui, A., Agnihotri, R., & Khan, S. (2023). Palyno–morphological and isotopic characterization of monofloral and multifloral honeys from Lucknow, India. Journal of Palaeosciences, 72(2), 91–118.



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